Constitutional education and protective education are requirements by the Court in civil proceedings. It is designed for children whose parents cannot take care of them, they are not able or have died. It is such a measure to secure the child's progress. Law No. 109/2002 Sb. about the performance of institutional care or protective education in school facilities and preventive educational care in school facilities talks about, that such education is stored in or ordered the youth to 18 years, which is threatened by factors of the external environment or its actions endangers themselves or their surroundings.

The reasons for the adoption of children in the children's home:

  •  57% unfavorable social situation
  • 45% of the housing problems of the family
  •  38% of the family's financial difficulties, debts
  • 17% due to the mismanagement of education special needs parents
  • 16% alcohol
  •  15% of child abuse, neglect

For infant institutes are the reasons as follows:

  •  75% unfavorable social situation
  • 65% of the housing problems of the family
  • 60% of the family's financial difficulties, debts
  • 30% child orphaned by parents
The source of the

The problem is that with this issue at the same time a few ministries, their cooperation and coherence is complex and lengthy. Therefore, the quality of care for minor children in our country too much not improving.

In children's homes (already DD) are the children of low-cultural environment, where not able to get the companies accepted standards and rules. Thanks to the low education and lack of knowledge of the parents, it is hard to motivate these children to the adoption or the adoption of basic social norms so that it could in the future without any problems to integrate into society. The problem of children placed in institutional care is that parents continue to operate on the baby and if we are trying to teach him to the standards of the company, which do not recognize or refuse to parents is, then even the effort to incorporate the child complicates, and in the worst case, misses the point. The most common cause of the placement of a child into a DD is non-compliance with some of the basic functions of the family.

In children, which are placed into a DD are the typical emotional disorders, disorders in establishing social relationships or psychological deprivation. The issue also remains the integration of children from DD to the company.

Experts still addresses the question of whether it is better to keep the child in a dysfunctional family, or remove it. boy-447701_960_720The best of course would be to help parents and this will also help the children. The question of course is whether the parents want to help and if you take it at all. The European Union's position on this issue is unequivocal. Our country is being pressured to DD and similar equipment, has been canceled. They should replace them with so-called.  professional foster families. You do not have a tradition in our country, and I have opinions, that this is only about the financial gains for both organizations, which these foster parents to train and test, as well as for the foster parents, because the income from this activity is relatively large.  How to check from the State, then it will be very complicated.

The life of children in DD after 1989 a very changed. In most of them the children live in the so-called. family groups, where there is a maximum of 6 children and where mainly turns only two aunts. The organizational structure of these devices already places great emphasis on the child as a person with individual needs and also increased efforts to integrate him into society, to live independently and happily.

In children's homes is the countless forms of activity that the child learns to experience, develop your personality, skills, or abilities. Between these forms of activities include sports activities, Afterschool, work activities, preparation for teaching, family education, tourism, the arts, recreation and holiday stays, excursions and tours, sebeobslužné activities, cultural events, music education, aesthetic education, games and competitions, religious education, relaxation activities, work on the land, autonomy, language training, small-scale breeding pets etc. Children are led to independence. Also receive an adequate allowance – age – and so is learning, celebrated together, birthday, holidays, Christmas.

What in our country still remains a major problem is the life of the child after their stay in the DD.  Czech Republic seeks the most after leaving the children at home to help with adaptation to a separate life, on integration into society and the smooth functioning of our system. Children leaving the home of his parents, to continue their support, you may contact them at any time with any problem or at least knows that if something serious happened, have a foothold. For a child from a children's home, this is not true, is it perhaps one of the most challenging steps in a separate life, lacks the security and support. It is expected that this situation, but if we take into account, in how many years, today's young people from the relatively normal families osamostatňují, does not have even a little simple.  Young people from institutional care must be independent and integrate without the help of relatives, must handle it themselves. Children of normal families parents help with offices, with the rent, with some kind of crisis situation, the children of DD are not so lucky. Children leaving the children's home, they receive the support to the beginning of life, the amount of money corresponding to the length of stay in the DD. After retiring from the DD "children" have the possibility of contact with the device, they can come to for advice or to continue to communicate with DD. In a large representation in the institutional care can stop socially pathological development of the child, or hinder, the trouble is that you
These problems does not work. In the children's home children are accustomed to some mode rules and sanctions, after the departure of returns to the environment, which didn't work. Statistics show that 51% of young people committed crime for the first time after leaving DD, until such a useless. The other 41% with crime committed through the year. The question is whether the cause is that only we stop socially pathological development of the child or is it inappropriate terms, which, after leaving the child facing the DD? In children's homes is located approximately 18 000 children and from this number is one third of the whole according to the Vodičkové, which gets into conflict with the law. Among the homeless is outweighed by the presence of individuals who grew up in a children's home. People who lived in institutional care, in life are not too successful, have lower mental stability and small social skills. Reasons after leaving the children's home children are failing, will surely be much and it may be the Environment Institute itself, what causes the failure.

 

Among the supporting projects that seek to promote children from DD, eg. Endowment Fund manželů Livie a Václava Klausových, whose aim is to facilitate the start of a separate life. The project is called "Fee to life", were included children aged 14-18 years of age and has to assist them in leaving the DD. Motivates children to good study results and recreational activities. In addition to the fixed Fund of children gaining account bonuses for good behavior, school achievements, etc. Muses of children or the life as aman-517200_960_720 project is similar, but more focused on the practical side of life. It consists of 4 modules: work, home, relationships, leaving the DD. Seminars and subsequent practice help prepare children to possible difficulties, learning is confront a common and challenging life situations. Important in this project is laying emphasis on feedback. Children talking about their experiences, discuss what it brought them, what they did, what problems are afraid of scrutiny. Working in groups of psychotherapists who can help children in finding some problems and can help in the solution of individual problems. Accommodation options: the asylum House is probably the best known first use for those who have no where to retire. Provides 24-hour care and temporary accommodation to persons who want to solve problems, which have caused, that are without shelter. Shelter provides a minimum but decent accommodation with the possibility of help. If the client finds himself in a difficult life situation, he offered to help, will mark the homeless and is a much greater likelihood of his reintegration into society. Halfway houses are a new type of assistance, not only children, who just left the children's home. This is the type of House for young people who find themselves in trouble. According to the statistics, most clients are teenagers, who have left the children's home, treating individuals using drugs, but even these individuals, that the situation in the family drove on the street. Halfway house offers clients not only the physical, but also social and legal support. Clients have available bed, washing machine, refrigerator, kitchen, etc. The staff of this facility can help clients find work adequate capabilities of the individual, support is in operation without the social support and to reach independence. There are 3 forms: 1. acute stay, to stabilize and acute help the client 2. Community mode, that is used to support the client and individual work with him, 3. a separate residence, when emphasis is placed on a separate life. The hostel is another option, where can an individual after the departure of the DD resort. The so-called. the hostels are part of the corporate employment, when an employer's employee base stabilizes. Commercial lodges are provided for a financial payment. Living in hostels is the usual levels are double rooms, shared kitchen, shared bathroom facilities. Rooms are equipped with furniture and linens. Part of the housing is the implementation of the operating regulations, compliance with which is strictly monitored. Own housing is the least frequent but best solution at all. If we are talking about buying an apartment, we have available to finance and it is in the context of the children from children's home, unfortunately, Utopia.

In recent years, however, occurs in children who are leaving the DD one absurdity.  According to the Act on municipal waste no. 565/1990 Coll. each citizen with permanent residence in the village of obligation to pay charges for the disposal of municipal waste.  Children growing up in orphanages have reported permanent residence under the domicile of his biological mother. And it is mostly in the place where the child is virtually absent, often even where it has never been. The recovery of the local fee for municipal waste directly from the children is not only unethical and contrary to common sense, but it is likely to be in conflict with the Constitution of the Czech Republic, by the Charter of fundamental rights and freedoms and the International Convention on the rights of the child.

It is a paradox, which leads to the fact that a child in the moment of coming of age in the DD becomes the debtor. And on his modest savings falls executor. What then has to have a child incentive to bring in work process? Even the slightest amount, which earns him snatch the execution Office. Company kids intentionally harms its laws and sends them on the street.  The Foundation was a child without debt www.ditebezdluhu.cz, which seeks to provide legal services to these children and leads them in litigation. Each of the children provides free legal assistance in resolving their debt fees for municipal waste, or driving at a time when black children lived with their biological parents. He represents is in control and the administrative fee of the judiciary and in property seizures.

If the child does not pay the debt reduction, the amount of their sponsorship. Efforts are also on the amendment of the legislation, but it has still a long way ahead of you. This part of the project ensures the public benefit corporation that Give children the chance to organise a series of projects to facilitate the entry of children from children's homes to a separate life.

The effort to change the law resulted in the submission of the draft amendment to the law on local charges by a group of members from almost all parliamentary parties. This amendment should bring both the liberation of children placed in children's homes and similar facilities, and, finally, to establish a clear rule that local fees for waste must pay for their children's parents

Due to the fact that the laws relating to children, are quite specific, and also to information that cases concerning children, is still more, is to place the question of whether our country should not give rise to the post of children's Ombudsman. It would be a man, that he should be the rights and that he should practice for many years in the field of family law. This expert would oversee and on the creation of laws relating to children. It is necessary to admit that children need special protection and care, since they have limited recourse to the Court. Are dependent on the adults. This man was a kind of mediator between children and the State institutions. They then produce a voluntary organization, that children hold and must solve their problems. The post of children's Ombudsman is already established in Sweden, Greece, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Austria, Poland, Slovakia and the United Nations criticizes the law for us, that our country is still not. The Czech political parties, however, has ignored the issue, and for any of them is the establishment of this Institute a priority issue.

Author: PhDr. Daniel N

Source:

BRUTHANSOVÁ, d., ALI, a., FM, M: health and social services in the infant institutions and children's homes for children under three years of age. Prague: RILSA, 2005. 71 s.

DUNOVSKÝ, j. and team. Social Pediatrics – selected chapters. Prague: Grada, 1999. 279 s. ISBN 80-7169-254-9.

KULHAVA, l. et al.: the lack of preparedness of young people from children's homes for life in society. Prague, 2010

ŠKOVIERA, a.: dilemmas of substitute family care. Prague: portal, 1998.143 with. ISBN 978-80-7367-318-5

VAGHANI, Miroslav. Children's homes in the Czech Republic. Prague: Aula, 1999. 268 s. ISBN 80-902667-6-2.

www.detibezdluhu.cz